What is Polymorphism in Python with example | Duck typing

Polymorphism in Python refers to the ability of an object to take on different forms or behaviors depending on the context in which it is used. It is one of the fundamental principles of object-oriented programming (OOP) and allows objects of different classes to be treated as if they were objects of a common superclass.

Polymorphism is closely related to inheritance, which is another important concept in OOP. In Python, when a class inherits from another class, it inherits not only the attributes and methods of the parent class but also the ability to be polymorphic.

What is polymorphism in Python?

Polymorphism is a fundamental concept in object-oriented programming (OOP) that allows objects of different classes to be treated as objects of a common base class. In Python, polymorphism is achieved through method overriding and dynamic dispatch, which means that you can call a method on an object, and the specific implementation of that method is determined at runtime based on the actual type of the object.

Polymorphism enables you to write more generic and reusable code, as you can work with objects of different classes in a consistent way, as long as they share a common interface (methods and attributes).

Polymorphism in Python with example

Polymorphism in Python with example

Here’s an example demonstrated in Python:

class Animal:
    def make_sound(self):

class Dog(Animal):
    def make_sound(self):

class Cat(Animal):
    def make_sound(self):

class Bird(Animal):
    def make_sound(self):

# Polymorphic function
def animal_sounds(animals):
    for animal in animals:

# Create instances of different animals
dog = Dog()
cat = Cat()
bird = Bird()

# Create a list of animal objects
animals = [dog, cat, bird]

# Call the polymorphic function with the list of animals

In the above polymorphism in Python example, we have a base class Animal with a method make_sound(). The subclasses DogCat and Bird inherit from Animal and override the make_sound() method with their own implementations.

The function animal_sounds() takes a list of animal objects as input. It iterates over the list and calls the make_sound() method on each animal object. The key point here is that the method call is polymorphic, meaning that the appropriate implementation  make_sound() is determined at runtime based on the actual type of each object in the list.

When you run the code, it will produce the following output:


The animal_sounds() function treats each animal object in the list as an instance of the Animal class, but when the make_sound() the method is called, the overridden method in the respective subclass is executed. This demonstrates the polymorphic behavior, where objects of different classes are treated as if they were objects of a common superclass and exhibit different behaviors based on their actual types.

Types of Polymorphism in Python

There are two main forms of polymorphism in Python:

  1. Method Overriding:  Method overriding occurs when a subclass provides a different implementation of a method that is already defined in its parent class. The method in the subclass must have the same name and the same number and type of parameters as the method in the parent class. When the method is called on an object of the subclass, the overridden method in the subclass is executed instead of the method in the parent class.

Here’s an example:

class Animal:
def speak(self):

class Dog(Animal):
def speak(self):
return “Woof!”

class Cat(Animal):
def speak(self):
return “Meow!”

my_dog = Dog()
my_cat = Cat()

print(my_dog.speak()) # Output: “Woof!”
print(my_cat.speak()) # Output: “Meow!”

  1. Duck Typing: Method overloading refers to the ability to define multiple methods with the same name but different parameters in a class. However, unlike some other programming languages, Python does not directly support method overloading by default. In Python, you can achieve a similar effect by using default parameter values or by using variable-length arguments (*args or **kwargs) to accept a variable number of arguments.

Here’s an example of duck typing:

class Car:
def drive(self):
print(“Car is driving.”)

class Bike:
def drive(self):
print(“Bike is riding.”)

def start_vehicle(vehicle):

my_car = Car()
my_bike = Bike()

start_vehicle(my_car) # Output: “Car is driving.”
start_vehicle(my_bike) # Output: “Bike is riding.”

Advantages of using polymorphism in Python?

type of Polymorphism in Python

There are several advantages of using polymorphism in Python:

  1. Code Reusability: Polymorphism allows you to create code that can be reused across different parts of your program. By defining common interfaces and behaviors in base classes and leveraging polymorphism, you can write code that can be applied to multiple classes. This promotes code reusability and reduces the need for redundant code.
  2. Flexibility and Extensibility: Polymorphism  in Python enables you to write flexible and extensible code. New classes can be easily added to the program without modifying the existing code. As long as the new class adheres to the common interface defined by the base class, it can be used interchangeably with other classes.
  3. Simplifies Code Maintenance: Polymorphism helps in simplifying code maintenance. When you have multiple classes that share a common interface, making changes to the interface or behavior is easier and requires modifications in fewer places. This reduces the chances of introducing bugs and makes code maintenance more manageable.
  4. Enables Loose Coupling: Polymorphism in Python promotes loose coupling between classes. By programming to interfaces rather than concrete implementations, you can create classes that are independent of each other. This enhances modularity and makes the code more flexible and resilient to changes.
  5. Enhances Readability and Understandability: Polymorphism improves the readability and understandability of code. When you see a method call on an object, you don’t need to know the specific class of the object to understand what the method does. By relying on common interfaces, the code becomes more expressive and self-explanatory.
  6. Supports Polymorphic Data Structures: Polymorphism allows you to create data structures that can contain objects of different types as long as they share a common interface. This can be useful in scenarios where you need to work with a collection of objects with similar behavior but different implementations.

Overall, polymorphism in Python promotes code reuse, flexibility, and maintainability. It enables you to write modular and extensible code that is easier to understand and maintain over time.

Drawbacks or limitations of using polymorphism in Python?

While polymorphism in Python offers numerous advantages, there are also some potential drawbacks and limitations to consider:

  1. Runtime Overhead: Polymorphism introduces some runtime overhead compared to direct method invocations. When a method is called on an object, the interpreter needs to perform a lookup to determine the appropriate method implementation based on the object’s actual type. This lookup process adds a small amount of overhead compared to direct method calls.
  2. Complexity: Polymorphism in Python can introduce complexity, especially in larger codebases. When working with polymorphic code, it’s crucial to understand the common interfaces and behaviors shared by different objects. Managing and coordinating these interfaces across multiple classes can become challenging, and it may require careful design and documentation.
  3. Potential Performance Impact: Depending on the specific use case, polymorphism may have a performance impact. While the overhead is generally minimal, in performance-sensitive scenarios where a large number of method calls are executed, the additional lookup and dispatch operations can accumulate and affect overall performance. It’s important to consider the performance implications of polymorphism in such cases.
  4. Lack of Compile-Time Checks: Python is a dynamically typed language, and polymorphism is resolved at runtime. This means that the compiler cannot perform static type checks to ensure that the method calls are valid for a given object. Mistakes in method names or parameter types may go unnoticed until runtime, leading to potential errors and bugs.
  5. Dependency on Inheritance: Polymorphism in Python is closely tied to inheritance. Inheritance hierarchies can become complex and hard to manage, especially when dealing with multiple levels of inheritance. Overly deep or convoluted inheritance structures can make code harder to understand, maintain, and debug.
  6. Potential for Misuse: Polymorphism, if used improperly, can lead to code that is difficult to comprehend and maintain. Overuse of polymorphic behavior or excessive reliance on subclassing can make code more convoluted and less intuitive. It’s important to strike a balance and use polymorphism judiciously where it adds value.

It’s essential to weigh the benefits and drawbacks of polymorphism in the context of your specific application. While polymorphism can be a powerful tool for creating flexible and reusable code, it’s important to consider the trade-offs and make informed design decisions.

How can I mitigate the potential performance impact of polymorphism in Python?

If you’re concerned about the potential performance impact of polymorphism in Python, there are several strategies you can employ to mitigate it:

  1. Optimize Critical Code Sections: Identify the critical sections of your code where performance is crucial and focus on optimizing those areas. Profile your code to identify bottlenecks and optimize the algorithms or data structures used in those sections. By improving the efficiency of the underlying operations, you can offset the performance impact introduced by polymorphism in Python.
  2. Use Static Typing: Although Python is a dynamically typed language, you can leverage static typing using type hints and tools like MyPy or Pyright. By providing explicit type annotations, you enable static type checkers to perform compile-time checks, catching potential type errors early. Static typing can help optimize performance by reducing the need for runtime type checks.
  3. Avoid Excessive Method Lookups: If you have situations where a method is called repeatedly in a tight loop, consider caching the method lookup or storing a reference to the method itself. This can help reduce the repeated lookup overhead and improve performance. However, be cautious with premature optimization and ensure that the potential gains outweigh the added complexity.
  4. Consider Inline Function Calls: In some cases, you might find that the overhead of polymorphic method calls is impacting performance significantly. In such situations, it may be beneficial to inline the implementation of the method directly at the call site, eliminating the need for dynamic dispatch. However, be mindful of code readability and maintainability when using this approach.
  5. Use Data-Oriented Design: If performance is a primary concern, consider adopting a data-oriented design approach. Instead of relying heavily on polymorphic behavior, organize your code around data structures and process the data in a more cache-friendly manner. This can lead to significant performance improvements by reducing memory access latency and maximizing CPU cache utilization.
  6. Consider Alternative Approaches: Depending on your specific use case, there might be alternative approaches that can provide better performance without relying heavily on polymorphism. For example, you could explore using composition instead of inheritance, or you could use function overloading techniques to achieve similar functionality without the runtime overhead of polymorphic method calls.

It’s important to note that the performance impact of polymorphism is often negligible in most scenarios. Before optimizing for performance, it’s recommended to profile your code and identify the actual bottlenecks.

Class Polymorphism in Python

Class Polymorphism in Python

Class polymorphism in Python refers to the ability of different classes to have methods with the same name but different implementations. It allows objects of different classes to be treated as if they were objects of a common superclass, enabling code reuse and flexibility.

To demonstrate class polymorphism in Python, let’s consider an example using geometric shapes:

class Shape:
    def calculate_area(self):

class Rectangle(Shape):
    def __init__(self, width, height):
        self.width = width
        self.height = height

    def calculate_area(self):
        return self.width * self.height

class Circle(Shape):
    def __init__(self, radius):
        self.radius = radius

    def calculate_area(self):
        return 3.14 * self.radius**2

# Create instances of different shapes
rectangle = Rectangle(5, 3)
circle = Circle(2)

# Call the polymorphic method
print(rectangle.calculate_area())  # Output: 15
print(circle.calculate_area())     # Output: 12.56

In the example above, we have a base class Shape with a method calculate_area(). The subclasses Rectangle and Circle inherit from Shape and override the calculate_area() method with their own implementations.

The Rectangle class calculates the area by multiplying its width and height, while the Circle class calculates the area using the formula for the area of a circle.

We create instances of Rectangle and Circle and call the calculate_area() method on each object. Although the objects have different types, they are treated as Shape objects because of the inheritance relationship. The polymorphic behavior allows us to call the same method name calculate_area() on different objects and get the appropriate implementation based on the object’s actual type.

By leveraging class polymorphism in Python, we can write more flexible and reusable code. We can treat objects of different classes as if they were instances of a common superclass, enabling us to write code that works with a variety of objects that share a similar interface.

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