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George Soros The Alchemy of Finance Summary: 2nd Edition

“The Alchemy of Finance” is a book written by George Soros, a renowned investor, philanthropist, and hedge fund manager. In the book, Soros shares his investment strategies and introduces his theory of reflexivity, which has become a central concept in his approach to financial markets.

Soros combines fundamental analysis, technical analysis, and market psychology in his investment approach. He emphasizes the importance of recognizing and understanding the biases and misconceptions that influence market behavior. By understanding these biases, investors can potentially identify market inefficiencies and profit from them.

The Alchemy of Finance Reviews

George Soros has added a new chapter to “The Alchemy of Finance,” which reveals the secrets behind his remarkable success as a money manager. The updated edition also includes a new preface and introduction to provide additional insights. Furthermore, the book features a new foreword written by renowned economist Paul Volcker, who describes it as an extraordinary and unparalleled glimpse into Soros’s decision-making process. Volcker praises the book, referring to it as fantastic and an invaluable resource for understanding the strategies of the most successful money manager of our era.

George Soros, recognized as one of the most influential and profitable investors today, is the subject of a special edition of his classic investment book, “The Alchemy of Finance.” Referred to as “the Man Who Moves Markets” by BusinessWeek, Soros shares his theoretical and practical insights into current financial trends and presents a new paradigm for understanding today’s financial markets.

The expanded and revised Introduction provides details of Soros’s innovative investment practices, his worldview, and his new paradigm of the “theory of reflexivity” that underlies his unique investment strategies. This special edition includes a new chapter by Soros, revealing the secrets to his success, and a Foreword by the Honorable Paul Volcker, former Chairman of the Federal Reserve. Soros, in addition to his financial ventures, is actively involved in education, culture, and economic aid through his philanthropic organizations, the Open Society Fund and the Soros Foundation.

  • “The Alchemy of Finance” is renowned for its complex and challenging content, incorporating economic theory, philosophy, and practical investment insights.
  • The book provides a comprehensive understanding of Soros’s investment strategies and his distinctive viewpoint on financial markets.
  • Soros’s theory of reflexivity, a central concept in the book, suggests that market prices are influenced by both fundamentals and market participants’ perceptions, creating feedback loops and boom-bust cycles.

Why is this book, The Alchemy of Finance, something you read and reread regularly?

George Soros The Alchemy of Finance

“The Alchemy of Finance” by George Soros is a book that provides valuable insights into his successful investment strategies and the concept of reflexivity in financial markets. Soros is widely regarded as one of the most successful money managers in history, making his track record an appealing reason to read the book.

Despite the book’s popularity, the application of Soros’s theoretical framework, particularly the idea of reflexivity, remains limited in the investing community. Soros introduced this concept almost 30 years ago, yet it is still not widely embraced.

The current market offers numerous reflexive situations, and the book highlights the potential for taking advantage of such opportunities. The author personally acknowledges benefiting from several.

However, Soros’s writing style can be challenging, with complex vocabulary and phrasing that can make simple concepts difficult to understand. This may explain why he did not achieve significant progress as a philosopher.

It’s important to note that “The Alchemy of Finance” is not suitable for beginners in finance and money management. It assumes prior knowledge of the stock market, currency market, and events that were relevant in the 1980s but may be unfamiliar to today’s investors. The reader may encounter references, such as the Plaza Accord, that require additional research.

Overall, if you possess a basic understanding of stocks, bonds, and currencies and have an interest in money management, reading this book is highly recommended. It provides valuable insights that can enhance your investment approach and help you avoid trading blindly.

What I learned is:

The author’s review of “The Alchemy of Finance” by George Soros highlights two main points.

1.   Firstly, it is unclear whether Soros’s success was due to skill or luck, and the book does not offer a clear answer to this question. Secondly, the writing style of the book is criticized for being muddy, convoluted, and focused on describing historical market events rather than providing practical guidance for present or future scenarios. The lack of clarity in explaining Soros’s methods and strategy, along with an excessive focus on past events, makes the book unappealing and irrelevant to the reader.

2.   The review highlights the author’s emphasis on intense emotional involvement with the portfolio as a key factor in Soros’s success. However, the reviewer finds this approach reckless and does not resonate with their perspective. They express dissatisfaction with the book’s attempt to explain an emotional approach, indicating that it fails to convince or appeal to them.

3.   The review highlights a commonality among successful investors, including George Soros, which is their dedication and sacrifice in pursuing financial success. They emphasize that achieving such success requires consistently dedicating 60, 70, or even 80 hours a week over an extended period, which can have an impact on other aspects of life.

The Alchemy of Finance is far more than you expected.

Reflexivity is a dynamic relationship between two variables that mutually and recursively influence each other.

An example of the two-way relationship of reflexivity is as follows:
  • In lending, a bank provides money to a business based on collateral, reflecting the debtor’s creditworthiness.
  • Collateral can include property value or future income streams. However, the act of lending itself affects the valuation of the collateral, creating a dynamic relationship.
In a reflexive relationship, the value of collateral is dependent on the value of capital borrowed, while the value of the borrowed amount is dependent on the value of collateral. This interplay creates a dynamic interaction where both variables act as dependent variables, influencing each other in an ongoing cycle.

Participants in finance and economics tend to focus on theories that explain static states rather than dynamic processes, such as equilibrium and efficient markets.

Reflexivity, as described by Soros, involves a continuous dynamism without a fixed equilibrium. It leads to boom/bust cycles due to self-reinforcing and self-correcting mutual recursion. Credit expansion inflates asset values, which then serve as collateral for further credit expansion.

Soros observes that economic contractions occur rapidly when a tipping point is reached, causing market participants to quickly sell deflating assets. Unexpected events can lead to steep declines in market value, while forecasting and acting on known decreases can reflexively prevent their occurrence.

Soros concludes that the complex interplay of reflexivity in various financial relationships, such as lender-to-debtor, is difficult to disentangle, making it unsuitable for the application of the scientific method. This leads to the term “alchemy,” representing operational success achieved without a formal system of verifying truth.

It appears that Soros would willingly exchange his wealth for a respected position in the realm of philosophy. His admiration for the scientific method can be attributed to his studies under Karl Popper. In addition to his financial success, Soros took extended breaks to write a philosophical work.

Soros expresses the belief that the abstractions of philosophy and the scientific method create a distance from the reality of trading. In his view, overarching theories do not apply, and instinct plays a dominant role. He suggests that re-engaging with philosophy made him less profitable in trading.

Despite being a capitalist, Soros offers insightful observations on the limitations of capitalism. He cautions against overestimating the value of objective criteria, suggesting that our fixation on them leads us to attribute a significance to them that they do not inherently possess.

Soros remarks that in capitalism, the pursuit of profit and efficiency often becomes an end in itself, overshadowing the understanding that they should serve as means to achieve broader ends. He argues that the values that drive individuals cannot be easily quantified, leading us to elevate profit and material wealth—measurable in monetary terms—as supreme values while neglecting other intrinsic motivations.

While “The Alchemy of Finance” primarily revolves around the theory of reflexivity, it can be seen as a formal presentation and organization of Soros’s preexisting personal ideas.

The Alchemy of Finance: A Mode of Thought for the Market and Economy.

“The Alchemy of Finance” presents a framework for understanding the market and economy, challenging the notion of efficient market theory. It argues that humans are not always rational actors, leading to dynamic adjustments and irrational volatility. The book highlights how prevailing biases influence trends, which can result in speculative bubbles. These biases eventually reverse at inflection points, leading to market busts. The duration of bias trends determines the length of booms and busts.

At inflection points these trends reverse and create busts.

Inflection points in the market can be influenced by credit cycles. Low-interest rates facilitate easy borrowing and accelerate buying, leading to the formation of bubbles driven by prevailing biases. However, when insolvency arises, increasing interest rates dampen buying and burst these biased bubbles.

Understanding values in the economy can be simplified by considering the discrepancy between market value and intrinsic value of assets such as working capital, book value, equity, and other tangible assets. Additionally, factoring in growth prospects allows for the valuation of a business to be either higher or lower than the prevailing market price.

Regardless of prevailing biases, businesses will eventually revert to the mean over time. This framework allows for understanding the inflection points of any business at any given time within the economic cycle.

“The Alchemy of Finance” is about understanding markets and making better investing decisions

“The Alchemy of Finance” goes beyond market understanding and investment decisions. It offers insights into comprehending reality and making better decisions overall. Restricting its significance solely to the markets would be a serious oversight, a perspective that Soros himself avoids.

Understanding feedback loops is crucial to comprehending reality. While these loops can sustain and drive exponential changes for some time, they are inherently self-defeating. A fission bomb serves as an example, where the splitting of uranium atoms releases energy through a chain reaction until the fuel is depleted, abruptly ending the process.

The mechanism of feedback loops also underlies financial markets, resulting in cycles of booms and busts. Recognizing the dynamics of feedback loops is crucial for decision-making in various contexts. Complex systems, including markets, diplomacy, and reality, are historical processes that can be explained retrospectively but offer numerous potential outcomes beforehand.

in the Alchemy of Finance, Soros uses the term “reflexivity” to describe the feedback loop that operates between reality and our understanding of reality. Traditionally, we tend to perceive causality only from reality in our thinking. However, reflexivity introduces the idea that the arrow of causality also runs the other way. For example, if a bank believes FooCorp is superior to its competitors and lends them money, it can enhance FooCorp’s competitiveness. Reflexivity manifests in various domains, including economics, politics, interpersonal relationships, and even in the “reality dysfunction field” described by Steve Jobs.

Economic supply-and-demand curves intriguingly illustrate reflexivity. Conventionally, they are treated as independent and non-interacting factors that determine market-clearing prices. However, numerous instances of reflexive interactions between supply and demand can be observed. For instance, when there is high supply and low prices for a commodity, it stimulates innovative uses, creating new demand. This increased demand then raises prices, subsequently leading to higher supply. As a result, prices do not remain at equilibrium but dynamically fluctuate in a historical process.

Reflexivity introduces an element of unpredictability into the historical process of reality. This unpredictability arises because participants not only seek to understand reality but also influence it, leading to potential conflicts between their goals. Moreover, the very facts necessary for making predictions are contingent on participants’ views, which are in turn subject to change. For example, whether Bob Smith stands for leadership of the Bar Party depends on his perception of what others think about his candidacy.

Recognizing reflexivity and its implications challenges the notion of achieving perfect prediction in the future. While perfect prediction may be unattainable, incorporating reflexivity into our analysis can enhance our predictive capabilities. In traditional models, participants’ opinions are often treated as statements about the model rather than influential factors within the model. By explicitly considering these opinions, we can improve our ability to make predictions. The specific methods and approaches to achieve this depend on the context and situation at hand.

The Alchemy of Finance Summary

The Alchemy of Finance Summary: 2nd Edition

“The Alchemy of Finance” by George Soros is a book that explores Soros’s investment strategies and his theory of reflexivity. The book was published in 1987 and has since become a prominent work in the field of finance. Here is a summary of the key points covered in the book:

  • Soros’s Theory of Reflexivity:

One of the central ideas in the book is Soros’s theory of reflexivity. He argues that market prices are not solely determined by underlying economic fundamentals but are also influenced by the perceptions and beliefs of market participants. These perceptions can create feedback loops that can either reinforce or distort market trends.

  • The Role of Bias and Misconceptions:

Soros emphasizes the importance of recognizing and understanding biases and misconceptions that can affect market behavior. He believes that market participants often have imperfect and biased views, and these views can impact investment decisions and market outcomes.

  • Fundamental and Technical Analysis:

Soros combines both fundamental and technical analysis in his investment approach. He considers factors such as economic indicators, company fundamentals, and market trends to make investment decisions.

  • The Concept of “Reflexivity in Action”:

Soros provides examples from his own investment experiences to illustrate the concept of reflexivity in action. He shares insights into his successful investments, including his famous bet against the British pound in 1992.

  • Market Psychology:

The book explores the role of market psychology in shaping market trends and investor behavior. Soros discusses the impact of fear, greed, and other emotions on market participants and how these emotions can contribute to the formation of bubbles and market inefficiencies.

  • Understanding Risk and Uncertainty:

Soros emphasizes the importance of understanding risk and uncertainty in investment decisions. He discusses the limitations of traditional risk management models and suggests alternative approaches to managing risk.

  • The Role of Financial Institutions:

Soros also examines the role of financial institutions, such as banks and hedge funds, in shaping market dynamics. He discusses the interactions between market participants and the impact of institutional behavior on market trends.

“The Alchemy of Finance” is a complex and thought-provoking book that combines economic theory, philosophy, and practical investment insights. It offers readers a glimpse into Soros’s investment strategies and provides a framework for understanding the dynamics of financial markets. However, it’s important for readers to critically evaluate the ideas presented and consider their investment approach and risk tolerance.

The Alchemy of Finance, 2nd Edition
George Soros, Paul A. Volcker (Foreword by)

ISBN: 978-0-471-44549-4 June 2015, 416 Pages


  • Foreword to the New Edition
    by Paul A. Volcker xi
  • Foreword to the First Edition
    by Paul Tudor Jones II, xv
  • New Preface xix
    New Introduction 1

Part One Theory

  1. Reflexivity in the Stock Market 49
  2. Reflexivity in the Currency Market 73
  3. The Credit and Regulatory Cycle 85

Part Two: Historical Perspective

  1. The International Debt Problem (95)
  2. The Collective System of Lending (107)
  3. Reagan’s Imperial Circle 115
  4. Evolution of the Banking System (123)
  5. The “Oligopolarization” of America (133)

Part Three: The Real-time Experiment

  1. The Starting Point: August 1985 (145)
  2. Phase 1: August 1985–December 1985 (153)
  3. Control Period: January 1986–July 1986 (201)
  4. Phase 2: July 1986–November 1986 (241)
  5. The Conclusion: November 1986 (295)

Part Four: Evaluation

  1. The Scope for Financial Alchemy: An Evaluation of Experiment (307)
  2. The Quandary of the Social Sciences (317)

Part Five: Prescription

  1. Free Markets Versus Regulation (325)
  2. Toward an International Central Bank (333)
  3. The Paradox of Systemic Reform (351)
  4. The Crash of ’87 (355)
  • Epilogue 371
  • Notes 377
  • Appendix 381

George Soros biography at a glance:

George Soros is the Chairman of Soros Fund Management, overseeing the Quantum Group of Funds. His flagship fund, Quantum Fund, has achieved remarkable success, generating an average annual return of 31 percent over three decades. Soros has also been a significant philanthropist since 1979, with his charitable foundations operating in over fifty countries and annually allocating nearly half a billion dollars to various causes, including education, public health, civil society development, human rights, and more.

People’s views on George Soros’s the Alchemy of Finance

We gathered some reviews of the book and what people say (source:

George Soros The Alchemy of Finance Summary


“The Alchemy of Finance” is a rare and valuable book that offers insights into the mind of a highly successful individual in the financial field. It is not a quick-fix guide or a step-by-step manual on decision-making. Instead, it is a book intended for those involved in financial markets, especially those with philosophical inclinations. It assumes a reasonable understanding of financial instruments and international economics, and it feels like a work written by a speculator for speculators. The book introduces Soros’s theory of reflexivity and presents his perspective on markets through this framework. It also includes a trading diary that provides real-time glimpses into his thought process and investment decisions, making it an extraordinary resource.

Matt Kelty:

“The Alchemy of Finance” is a rare gem that offers valuable insights into the mind of a successful financial speculator. It is not a quick-fix guide but a book for those already involved in financial markets, assuming a reasonable knowledge of financial instruments and international economics. It introduces Soros’s theory of reflexivity and provides his perspective on markets through this lens. The inclusion of a trading diary adds an exceptional resource, showcasing his thought process and investment decisions in real-time.


George Soros is regarded as one of the greatest traders and minds of our time. However, the book’s rating is not higher due to the challenge of understanding his ideas on social science, philosophy, and reflexivity. Many readers have struggled to finish the book for the same reason.

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